“Being a spectator not only deprives one of participation,
but also leaves one’s mind free for unrelated activity. If academic learning
does not engage students, something else will.” John Goodlad (1983)
Complete the Frayer Model of your assigned concept. Bring to class to share on Monday. You can do whatever research you need to complete the worksheet. Your grade will be given on how completely you have covered the concept.
Activating Prior Knowledge to Expand Knowledge
Activating Prior Knowledge to Increase Meaningfulness
Cornell Notes is a type of graphic organizer that is taught in many study seminars and at high schools and colleges. It might be something you want to teach your students.
So, use the Cornell Notes process and template to take Cornell notes for one of your classes next week. It can be for a lecture, reading a chapter, or a video. After you have completed the notes, reflect on the technique. What benefits do you see of using this method for yourself? Do you think you could or would develop this method for yourself? Is it an improvement over the way you take notes now? What benefits can you see of using this method for your students? What might you add to this process to make it more "friendly" or appeal to multiple intelligences?
Upload a copy of your Cornell notes (10 points) and your reflection (20 points).
Since we are talking about graphic organizers and using both the verbal and the visual, let's read an article about doodling-educationally of course.
We will use Edji.it again. I really like it because I can read your comments all in the same place and I can assess how you are using the principles that we have been studying in class.
Read the article (code below). Watch the video that is linked in the reading. Comment 8 times. Use your comments to link to something that we have been studying in this class or something you have learned in other educational classes OR comment on a personal experience OR something that you have observed in the schools OR something that you would like to try for yourself or in your classroom. Enjoy the exploration of new ideas, even if it is not in your wheelhouse.
Join this Reading by going to edji.it/wpht or entering the code on your dashboard.
Brame, C., (2013). Flipping the classroom. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. Retrieved [todaysdate] from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/.
In essence, “flipping the classroom” means that students gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then use class time to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge, perhaps through problem-solving, discussion, or debates.
In terms of Bloom’s revised taxonomy (2001), this means that students are doing the lower levels of cognitive work (gaining knowledge and comprehension) outside of class, and focusing on the higher forms of cognitive work (application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation) in class, where they have the support of their peers and instructor. This model contrasts from the traditional model in which “first exposure” occurs via lecture in class, with students assimilating knowledge through homework; thus the term “flipped classroom.”
1. Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure prior to class.
The mechanism used for first exposure can vary, from simple textbook readings to lecture videos to podcasts or screencasts. For example, Grand Valley State University math professor Robert Talbert provides screencasts on class topics on his YouTube channel, while Vanderbilt computer science professor Doug Fisher provides his students video lectures prior to class (see examples here and here. These videos can be created by the instructor or found online from YouTube, the Khan Academy, MIT’s OpenCourseWare, Coursera, or other similar sources. The pre-class exposure doesn’t have to be high-tech, however; in the Deslauriers, Schelew, and Wieman study described above, students simply completed pre-class reading assignments.
2. Provide an incentive for students to prepare for class.
In all the examples cited above, students completed a task associated with their preparation….and that task was associated with points. The assignment can vary; the examples above used tasks that ranged from online quizzes to worksheets to short writing assignments, but in each case the task provided an incentive for students to come to class prepared by speaking the common language of undergraduates: points. In many cases, grading for completion rather than effort can be sufficient, particularly if class activities will provide students with the kind of feedback that grading for accuracy usually provides. See a blog post by CFT Director Derek Bruff about how he gets his students to prepare for class.
3. Provide a mechanism to assess student understanding.
The pre-class assignments that students complete as evidence of their preparation can also help both the instructor and the student assess understanding. Pre-class online quizzes can allow the instructor to practice Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT; Novak et al., 1999), which basically means that the instructor tailors class activities to focus on the elements with which students are struggling. If automatically graded, the quizzes can also help students pinpoint areas where they need help. Pre-class worksheets can also help focus student attention on areas with which they’re struggling, and can be a departure point for class activities, while pre-class writing assignments help students clarify their thinking about a subject, thereby producing richer in-class discussions. Importantly, much of the feedback students need is provided in class, reducing the need for instructors to provide extensive commentary outside of class (Walvoord and Anderson, 1998). In addition, many of the activities used during class time (e.g., clicker questions or debates) can serve as informal checks of student understanding.
4. Provide in-class activities that focus on higher level cognitive activities.
If the students gained basic knowledge outside of class, then they need to spend class time to promote deeper learning. Again, the activity will depend on the learning goals of the class and the culture of the discipline. For example, Lage, Platt, and Treglia described experiments students did in class to illustrate economic principles (2000), while Mazur and colleagues focused on student discussion of conceptual “clicker” questions and quantitative problems focused on physical principles (2001). In other contexts, students may spend time in class engaged in debates, data analysis, or synthesis activities. The key is that students are using class time to deepen their understanding and increase their skills at using their new knowledge.
The flip is gone for good
While I may not have intentionally removed the flip from my classroom, I would never resurrect it. Here’s why:
1) I dislike the idea of giving my students homework. Really? Yes. Students spend over five hours a day engaged in academic pursuits. I think that is enough. Recently I’ve been reading Alfie Kohn’s book The Homework Myth. He has mined the research on homework thoroughly, and — overwhelmingly — it shows that homework has no long-term impact on academic achievement. That’s likely shocking to some teachers.
But beyond this, I think there’s more to life than being engaged in academics. Students need to participate in a variety of pursuits — sports, music, drama, meaningful jobs — to fully develop all of their talents and discover areas of interest. Furthermore, students need to spend time with their families. What right do I have impinge on this?
2)A lecture by video is still a lecture.This summer I had the opportunity to speak with a superintendent from a division outside of my own. He was curious about the flipped classroom. We were with a group of educators and he asked if anyone present had used it. Since I was the teacher with the most experience with it, I spoke about what it looked like in our classroom. Mostly I talked about inquiry learning and student choice.
At the end, he looked at me and said, “So the videos — did you make your own, or use ones that someone else had made?” My immediate thought was, “you don’t get it.” I was candid: “If you think it’s only about the videos, then you have a really shallow definition of what this could be. The real power is when students take responsibility for their own learning.”
Of course, the reality is that many if not most teachers who opt for the flipped classroom strategy are not pursuing a student-centred approach to teaching and learning. The traditional model of learning is simply being reversed, instead of being reinvented. The lecture (live or on video) is still front and center.
Learning isn’t simply a matter of passively absorbing new information while watching a lecture on video; new knowledge should be actively constructed. When we shifted to a student-centred classroom, my students took control of their learning, and I quit lecturing. I haven’t lectured in almost two years.
3)I want my students to own their learning.It’s been stated that “At its most basic level, the flipped classroom gives students more control over their educations, allowing them to start and stop or rewind important lectures to focus on key points.” To me, this isn’t giving students control over their education, although it may be creating new markets for content-oriented videos and related materials.
In our classroom, we sit down with the curriculum, and students actually see what the outcomes and objectives are. We then have a dialogue about what my students’ learning might look like. They have a choice over what order they are going to work on outcomes, how they are going to learn and reach those outcomes, and how they are going to show me what they have learned.
As my students worked with me to invent our own version of student-centred learning, we realized that the three questions every student in our classroom had to answer were: What are you going to learn? How are you going to learn it? How are you going to show me your learning? This became our mantra — our framework for learning. This is what it means to give students “control over their education.”
4) My students need to be able to find and critically evaluate their own resources. Consequently, if I’m continuously handing them resources, they are not going to learn this skill. It’s more important for my students to learn to learn than to absorb the content in any video I might make and hand to them, with most of the thinking already done for them.
PROS and CONS
10 Pros And Cons Of A Flipped Classroom
by Mike Acedo
Many of us can recall instances in our lives where we found ourselves idly sitting in a classroom, eyes glazed over, half listening to our teacher as they lectured in front of the room.
These scenes are all too familiar in today’s schools, as the traditional model of learning has primarily revolved around a teacher-centered classroom, where instructors focus on conveying information, assigning work, and leaving it to the students to master the material. Though effective for some, this type of instruction has forced students to be merely receptors of information, rather than participants in their own learning processes through active learning. Fortunately, as technology has increasingly grown and infiltrated our classrooms, a new learning model has emerged that moves away from a teacher-centered space, and onto a more collaborative, student-centered learning environment, by way of a flipped classroom.
The main goal of a flipped classroom is to enhance student learning and achievement by reversing the traditional model of a classroom, focusing class time on student understanding rather than on lecture. To accomplish this, teachers post short video lectures online for students to view at home prior to the next class session. This allows class time to be devoted to expanding on and mastering the material through collaborative learning exercises, projects, and discussions. Essentially, the homework that is typically done at home is done in the classroom, while the lectures that are usually done in the classroom are viewed at home.
There are numerous potential advantages to this style of learning.
1. Students have more control
In a flipped classroom, it is possible for students to have increased input and control over their own learning. By providing short lectures at home, students are given the freedom to learn at their own pace. Students may pause or rewind the lectures, write down questions they may have, and discuss them with their teachers and peers in class.
This also allows students who need more time to understand certain concepts to take their time reviewing the material without getting left behind, and receive immediate assistance from teachers and classmates. As a result, this can not only improves student achievement, but improves student behavior in class as well.
2. It promotes student-centered learning and collaboration
Flipped classrooms allows class time be used to master skills through collaborative projects and discussions. This encourages students to teach and learn concepts from each other with the guidance of their teachers. By allowing students to partake in their own learning, they are able to own the knowledge they achieve, which in turn builds confidence. Furthermore, teachers are given the ability to identify errors in thinking or concept application, and are more available for one-on-one interaction.
3. Lessons and content are more accessible (provided there is tech access)
By making video lectures available at all times online, students who are forced to miss class due to illness, sports, vacations or emergencies, can catch up quickly. This also gives teachers more flexibility when they themselves are sick and also eliminates make-up assignments.
4. Access = easier for parents to see what’s going on
Unlike traditional classroom models, flipped classrooms give parents 24/7 access to their student’s video lectures. This allows parents to be better prepared when attempting to help their students and gives them insight into the quality of instruction their students are receiving.
5. It can be more efficient
Done properly, in a flipped classroom, kids can have more time to be kids, whether that means more free time, or more academic practice.
As most of us can recall from our own experiences, a substantial amount of time is spent each week outside the classroom doing homework. In fact, a study done observing 9th-12th graders found that students spent and average of 38 hours a week doing homework. This is a tremendous amount of work on not only students, but on teachers as well, who have to be constantly assigning and grading work. Since flipped classrooms limit the outside workload to watching an online lecture that is usually less than 10 minutes long, this gives students and teachers more time outside of class to focus on other interests like friends, families, and hobbies.
However, there has predictably been some criticism to this bold new model of teaching and learning.
1. It can create or exacerbate a digital divide
One of the most prominent issues is the necessity for students to have access to a computer and Internet in order to view the lectures. This is particularly hard on students from low-income districts who already have limited access to resources.
2. It relies on preparation and trust
There is also the concern that since flipped classrooms are dependent on student participation, one must trust students to watch the lectures at home. Unfortunately, there is no way to guarantee students will oblige or cooperate with the flipped model.
3. There is significant work on the front-end
Additionally, there is a concern that implementing a flipped classroom adds an extra workload on teachers, as there are several elements that must be integrated carefully to allow the class to flourish. Responsibilities include taping and uploading condensed lectures, which take time and skill, and introducing activities in the classroom that will enhance the subject matter as well as motivate students to participate and prepare for class. Though teachers can gradually integrated flipped elements into their classrooms, it will still require additional time and effort from teachers.
4. Not naturally a test-prep form of learning Whether you think this is a good or a bad thing is another conversation, but it’s important to realize that generally speaking, flipped classrooms do not “teach to the test.” Flipped classrooms do not follow the model of teaching to improve standardized test scores. However, teachers and students are still required to spend a sizable portion of time preparing for state mandated testing, which in turn interrupts the flipped classroom process.
5. Time in front of screens–instead of people and places–is increased
There are some who believe that if every teacher starts flipping their classrooms, students will spend hours in front of a computer watching the lectures. One may argue that this has the potential to cause serious problems to student’s learning processes, as not everyone may be as adept to learning through a computer.
Despite these issues, the flipped classroom can still a very effective, hands-on approach to improving student achievement and involving them in their own education.